With the increasing rate at which global warming is taking place, it is only normal that carbon reduction technologies are established and implemented. For a long time, the dangers and causes of global warming have attracted lengthy and perhaps, inconclusive debates. Thankfully, experts and scientists continue to work hard to discover ways of direct removal of atmospheric carbon.
The various carbon reduction technologies have been discussed below. They include:
- Carbon capture
– Direct air capture and
– Carbon storage
1. Carbon capture
The first thing that comes into mind when one hears carbon capture is, the process of capturing carbon dioxide from high-density areas such as cement factories, power stations, and vehicle exhausts. Of course, this too will be a crucial intermediate step in the reduction of carbon emissions- before the implementation of a clean energy infrastructure. Recently, a technique referred to as oxy-firing has been the biggest subject of considerable interest. It is a process where fuel is burnt in a pure oxygen environment. This allows the recovery of a stream of high concentration levels of carbon dioxide. Several pilot schemes of carbon capture are presently being evaluated. One of the most promising technologies for carbon capture is the use of algae.
2. Direct air capture
Capturing emissions from carbon footprints can assist in limiting new emissions of carbon dioxide. However, these solutions are only applicable to new emissions, but, unfortunately, do not help in the reduction of present carbon dioxide concentrations. On the other hand, direct air capture facilitates absolute minimization of carbon dioxide levels. While there are many ways of doing this, reforestation is perhaps the simplest. For this to be effective, the rate of deforestation should be curbed. Biomass and the use of artificial trees are other ways that have been suggested by experts.
3. Carbon storage
The challenge of carbon emissions doesn’t stop at the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Where will the estimated five billion tons of carbon added to the atmosphere annually be kept after capturing? Carbon storage is thus the other part of the equation. It is more challenging than carbon capture, in so many ways. Experts have recommended storage of carbon dioxide in the underground geographical formations. The most appropriate formations include deep coals seems, depleted gas and oil fields and saline formations. These sites are required to have at least one layer of cap rock in order to prevent leakage.