Atmospheric Carbon Reduction Technologies

With the increasing rate at which global warming is taking place, it is only normal that carbon reduction technologies are established and implemented. For a long time, the dangers and causes of global warming have attracted lengthy and perhaps, inconclusive debates. Thankfully, experts and scientists continue to work hard to discover ways of direct removal of atmospheric carbon.

The various carbon reduction technologies have been discussed below. They include:

- Carbon capture
– Direct air capture and
– Carbon storage 

1. Carbon capture 
The first thing that comes into mind when one hears carbon capture is, the process of capturing carbon dioxide from high-density areas such as cement factories, power stations, and vehicle exhausts. Of course, this too will be a crucial intermediate step in the reduction of carbon emissions- before the implementation of a clean energy infrastructure. Recently, a technique referred to as oxy-firing has been the biggest subject of considerable interest. It is a process where fuel is burnt in a pure oxygen environment. This allows the recovery of a stream of high concentration levels of carbon dioxide. Several pilot schemes of carbon capture are presently being evaluated. One of the most promising technologies for carbon capture is the use of algae.

2. Direct air capture
Capturing emissions from carbon footprints can assist in limiting new emissions of carbon dioxide. However, these solutions are only applicable to new emissions, but, unfortunately, do not help in the reduction of present carbon dioxide concentrations. On the other hand, direct air capture facilitates absolute minimization of carbon dioxide levels. While there are many ways of doing this, reforestation is perhaps the simplest. For this to be effective, the rate of deforestation should be curbed. Biomass and the use of artificial trees are other ways that have been suggested by experts.

3. Carbon storage
The challenge of carbon emissions doesn’t stop at the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Where will the estimated five billion tons of carbon added to the atmosphere annually be kept after capturing? Carbon storage is thus the other part of the equation. It is more challenging than carbon capture, in so many ways. Experts have recommended storage of carbon dioxide in the underground geographical formations. The most appropriate formations include deep coals seems, depleted gas and oil fields and saline formations. These sites are required to have at least one layer of cap rock in order to prevent leakage.

What is Green Project Management?

Green Project Management - Sustenance

Green Project Management – Sustenance

For those who may perhaps be not in the know green project management simply refers to business organizations or individuals incorporating “sustainable” thinking into the critical facets of any project management task. This in essence means taking the necessary time to reflect on sustainability issues when it comes to making critical project decisions as well as choices.

Unlike what some individuals may like to think green project management doesn’t necessary connote launching a wind farm, recycling or taking efforts to save an endangered species. But rather means taking effectual measures to ensure green strategies are implemented within and beyond any project’s whole life cycle.

For instance, this can be applied to a communication strategy of a business entity. This naturally will outline just who exactly to communicate with, what message should be relayed to them, as well as, how the given message will be eventually passed to the specified recipients. When it comes to how such a project management stratagem will be implemented in a green scope of thinking, it will not only just take into account the means of communication to utilize. Additionally, also provides most sustainable way to implement.

Steering from conventional communication methods, an organization can choose to integrate e-reports in preference to the environmentally unfriendly paper documents. This can move such establishments to opt for its project team members to utilize tablet computers other than their dealing with mountains of paper documents. This in extension ensures that all critical data is made readily available electronically. This definitely means that project schedules can be reviewed as well as updated dynamically as opposed to statically as is the case with paperwork. This not only maximizes the project team members’ efficiency and productivity, but also permits organization’s to implement a green strategy into its key operations. This is just one of the many examples of how green project management can come into play in an organizational setting.

Virtually any kind of project regardless of its scope can very easily implement green strategies, most especially when it comes to product impact. For example a musician and his production team keen on releasing an environmentally friendly CD can opt for green packaging and so on.

It has time and again been comprehensively proven that sustainability thinking can go a long way in assisting business establishments to meet their enterprise objectives in a very cost effective manner. Green project management goes a step further and helps such entities to utilize the scarce resources that are available to them in their mundane operations in a more effective way. This increases profitability while also aiding such establishments to incorporate environmentally friendly strategies into their day to day business activities.

It is hence very self evident to see how green project management is invaluable not just to business organizations , but also to any individual that may wish to, in his/her own little way, conserve the environment. While reaping from the diverse benefits, such strategies have to offer a totally business oriented perspective. Hope this green project management review has been insightful.

Everything you want to know about Carbon Trading?

Carbon trading is one of the resolutions that came out of the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 that was aimed at reducing emission of Green House Gases (GHG). Representatives from most countries in the world converged in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 to discuss global warming, it implications and how to fight it. It was from this meeting that the famous Kyoto Protocol was born.

Carbon Trading

Carbon Trading – (Image source – cfact.org)

Why Carbon trading?
After lengthy discussions at the meeting in Kyoto it was evident that most developed countries were not able or willing to downscale their industrial activities in order to reduce carbon emission. Carbon was identified as the leading cause of global warming and it is a common discharge from most industries. Another way had to be found to reduce global warming and so carbon trading was born.

How it works globally?
Simply stated, it involves paying to be allowed to emit carbon into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol set a maximum cap of the amount of emission each country was allowed. A country that exceeds the cap has to pay for the excess emission. The payments are made to the least industrialized countries (mostly third world countries) whose emissions do not reach or exceed the cap.

How it works locally?
Carbon trading is also applied to local industries in the developed countries e.g. the United States. This method used to regulate carbon emission is popularly referred to as a cap and trade scheme. It works through the following steps.
The authorities set a maximum amount of emission that each industry is allowed to emit i.e. a cap.
Once the cap is set and each industry knows the limit, the authority then distributes or in some cases auctions emission allowances equating the cap.

These allowances are used to pay for the emissions that the industry makes.When an industry exhausts their allowances it means that they are emitting beyond the set cap. One solution to this is reducing their emission in order to comply with the regulation. If reduction of emission is not possible the organization can buy spare credits from other companies in order to cover the deficit.
The companies that do not emit beyond the set cap are left with spare credit which they can sell to other companies or bank them for future use.For this scheme to work well locally it will be dependent on a strict but feasible cap. The cap should not be set to high or too low.

Shortcoming of carbon trading in fighting global warming
Many critics are of the opinion that this is a failed method of fighting global warming. Ever since it started being implemented in 2005 global warming is still on a steady rise. Provided you are able to pay for it, then you are free to emit as much carbon as you want’ this is their main argument against it.

Many countries and individual industries have chosen not to abide by the Kyoto Protocol. In some stricter countries, industries still find ways to bypass the regulation.

The complex method used to calculate the amount of carbon emissions by each country or industry is also another shortcoming.